Brief History of Goa (Gomantaka)

There is no place on this earth that doesn’t have even a bit of history behind it. On this basis, when we look at overall features of Goa, we’ll notice one thing for sure. As Goa is famous for her beautiful beaches, pious pilgrims and unique culture, she is also well known for a bit turbulent but remarkable history that gave her a unique identity among the rest of the world.

According to the Hindu Puranas, Lord Parashurama received the vast coastal land that runs from northern part of Goa to the southern part of Kerala as a gift from Samudra (God of sea). The original name of Goa Region was ‘Gomantaka’ which was originated from the people who had had herd of cattle in this region. During the reign of Portuguese people, the name was changed to ‘Goa’. The first written reference to Goa appears in the Sumerian writings, around 2200 B.C. The Sumerian called this region as ‘Gubio’. Strabo the Greek geographer has made the first reference to Konkana (another name for this region) with the name of Konkvi. The historians believe that the some groups of Phoenicians settled here around 1775 B.C. Around 1000 B.C., 96 families of Gauda Saraswat Brahmins settled here with the Kundbis, a race migrated from the southern part of India. This settlement is considered to be one of the milestones in the history of Goa.

Many dynasties conquered and ruled the Goa Region like Mauryans, Shatavahanas, Abhiras, Batpuras, Bhojas, Shilaharas, Chalukyas, Rastrakutas, Yadavas of Devagiri, and Kadambas. Among them, Kadambas had made Chandrapura (Sindabur) as their capital. During the 14-15 centuries, this region was conquered by Vijayanagara Empire and Muslim Bahamani Kingdom respectively. Had not Alfonso De Albuquerque conquered Goa, the fate of this beautiful state would have been doomed forever under Muslim rule. In 1510 A.D., the Portuguese admiral Alfonso De Albuquerque defeated the Muslims to establish the foundation for the further conquests in India. The conquest of Goa region by the Portuguese was the important milestone in the history of Goa which would gave unique identity to her in the future. The territories in Goa Region that the Portuguese conquered at first were called as ‘Velhas Conquistas’ or Old Conquests. Goa was the jewel of Portuguese’s eastern empire. By the end of the 16th century Goa Region was at its peak and was referred to as ‘Golden Goa’. However, the dark chapter of inquisition began during that century. In 1560, an inquisition office was established and it executed the methods of suppression from 1774-78 briefly. But finally, in 1812, it was abolished. The effect of inquisition was so much that innumerable Hindus were forced to flee to neighboring territories.

During the 17th century, the importance of Goa as commercial port began to decline and Brazil succeeded her as the economic centre of Portugal’s overseas empire. In 1603 and 1640, she survived from two naval assaults by the Dutch. But in 1683, Marathas overran almost the entire Goa Region. During the 18th century, Portuguese expanded their territories by conquering Ponda, Sanguem, Quepem, Canacona, Pernem, Bicholim and Satari. In 1787, some prominent priests with the help of some military officers of Goan origin revolted against the Portuguese rule but failed to achieve their goal. This revolt is known as ‘Pinto Revolt’. However, the Ranes of Goa are well known for their several attempts to overthrow the Portuguese rule in Goa. The last revolt of the Ranes took place in 1912 which ended in failure. In 1878, the Marmagoa seaport was opened to traffic with India as well as the establishment of rail links in 1881 with India. These transportation means provided external support to the Goans for their independence movement.

It was when the dictator Dr. Antonio de Salazar took power in Portugal in 1926, the flame of independence began to burn brightly in the hearts of Goans. The people of then British India gave their assistance in Goan independence movement. After the independence of India from the British rule in 1947, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru began the negotiation with Portuguese authority on the issue of Goan independence. But every attempt was met with the adamant attitude of the Portuguese authority. At the end, Mr. Nehru had no option except using the military force to free Goa. On 18-19th December, 1961, Indian Army entered Goa under the code named ‘Operation Vijay’ and she rejoined Mother India after nearly 500 years. Thus the Portuguese became the first European to arrive in India and the last to depart.

In 1963, Goa’s first general elections were held. In 1967, voters decided to not to merge with neighboring state of Maharashtra when a referendum was conducted. On 30th May 1987, Goa was declared as the 25th state of the Indian Union.

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Published in: on January 15, 2009 at 1:16 pm  Comments (1)  
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Goa in Indian History

The written references to Goa and its capital:
• Gubio (given by the Sumerian King Gudea of Lagash).
• Aparanta, Gomanta, Govarashtra, Goparastra, Govapuri, Gopakapuri, Gopakapattana, Gove (given by Indians).
• Chersonesus/Nelikinda (Periplus), Nekanidon (Pliny), Melinda/Tricadiba Insula (Ptolemy), Nincilda (Peutingerian Tables), Sibo (given by Greeks).
• Guvah, Sindabur, Chintabur, Cintabor (given by Arabs).

The Empires or Kingdoms that controlled Goa:
• Mauryas (3rd century B.C.)
• Kshatrapas (2-4th century A.D.)
• Abhiras, Batpuras, and Bhojas (4-6th century A.D.)
• Chalukyas (6-8th century A.D.)
• Rastrakutas (8-10th century A.D.)
• Shilaharas of South Konkana (10th century A.D.)
• Kadambas (1000 A.D. – 1334 A.D.)
• Local Feudatories (1334 A.D. – 1350 A.D.)
• Vijayanagara Empire (1380 A.D. -1470 A.D.)
• Bahamanis (1350 A.D. -1380 A.D. and 1470 A.D. – 1510 A.D.)
• Portuguese (Nov.25th 1510 A.D. – Dec.19th 1961 A.D.)
• British (1797 A.D. – 1813 A.D.)

The Rulers:

**Shilaharas (770 A.D. – 1020 A.D.)**
• Sanaphulla (765 A.D. – 795 A.D.)
• Dhamnura (795 A.D. – 820 A.D.)
• Aiyyapparaja (820 A.D. – 845 A.D.)
• Avasara I (845 A.D. – 870 A.D.)
• Avasara II (895 A.D. – 920 A.D.)
• Indrasaja (920 A.D. – 945 A.D.)
• Bhima (945 A.D. – 970 A.D.)
• Avasara III (970 A.D. – 995 A.D.)
• Rattaraja (995 A.D. – 1020 A.D.)

**Kadambas of Goa (966 A.D. – 1334 A.D.)**
• Kautakacharya (??-??)
• Nagavarma (??-??)
• Guhuladeva I (??-??)
• Shashtadeva I (??-??)
• Chaturbhuja (966 A.D. – 980A.D.)
• Guhuladeva II (980 A.D. – 1005 A.D.)
• Shashtadeva II (1005 A.D. – 1050 A.D.)
• Jayakeshi I (1050 A.D. – 1080 A.D.)
• Guhuladeva III (1080 A.D. – 1100 A.D.)
• Vijayaditya I (1100 A.D. – 1104 A.D.)
• Jayakeshi II (1104 A.D. – 1148 A.D.)
• Shivachitta/Permadi* (1148 A.D. – 1181 A.D.)
• Vishnuchitta Vijayaditya* (1148 A.D. – 1188 A.D.)
• Jayakeshi III (1188 A.D. – 1216 A.D.)
• Tribhuvanamalla/ Soyideva (1216 A.D. – 1238 A.D.)
• Shashtadeva III (1246 A.D. – 1260 A.D.)
• Kamadeva (1260 A.D. – 1311 A.D.)
• Son of Kamadeva (1311 A.D. – 1328 A.D.)
• Grandson of Kamadeva (1328 A.D. – 1334 A.D.)

The Portuguese Governor Generals of Goa:
• D. Francisco de Almeida [1505-1509] ~ King, Manuel I [since 1495]
• Afonso de Albuquerque [1509-1515] —–
• Lopo Soares de Albergaria [1515-1518] —–
• Diago Lopes de Sequeira [1518-1522] ~ King, Joao III [since 1521]
• D. Duarte de Menezes [1522-1524] —–
• D. Vasco da Gama [1524] —–
• D. Henrique de Menezes [1524-1526] —–
• Lopo Vas de Sampaio [1526-1529] —–
• Nuno da Cunha [1529-1538] —–
• D. Garcia de Noronha [1538-1540] —–
• D. Estevao da Gama [1540-1542] —–
• Martim Afonso de Sousa [1542-1545] —–
• D. Joao de Castro [1545-1548] —–
• Garcia de Sa [1548-1549] —–
• Jorge Cabral [1549-1550] —–
• D. Afonso de Noronha [1550-1554] —–
• D. Pedro Mascarenhas [1554-1555] —–
• Francisco Barreto [1555-1558] ~ King, Sebastiao [since 1557]
• D. Constantino de Braganca [1558-1561] —–
• D. Francisco Coutinho [1561-1564] —–
• Joao de Mendonca [1564] —–
• Antonio de Noronha [1564-1568] —–
• D. Luis de Ataide [1568-1571] —–
• D. Antonio de Noronha [1571-1573] —–
• Antonio Monez Barreto [1573-1576] —–
• D. Diogo de Menezes [1576-1578] —–
• D. Luis de Ataide [1578-1581] ~ Cardinal, Henrique & King, Antonio
• Ferrao Teles de Menezes [1581] ~ King, Filipe I
• D. Francisco Mascarenhas [1581-1584] —–
• D. Duarte de Menezes [1584-1588] —–
• Manuel de Sousa Coutinho [1588-1591] —–
• Matias de Albuquerque [1591-1597] —–
• D. Francisco da Gama [1597-1600] ~ King, Filipe II [since 1598]
• Aries de Saldanha [1600-1605] —–
• D. Martim Afonso e Castro [1605-1607] —–
• D. Frei Aleixo de Menezes [1608-1609] —–
• Andre Furtado de Mendonca [1609] —–
• Rui Lourenco de Tavora [1609-1612] —–
• D. Jeronima de Azevedo [1612-1617] —–
• D. Joao Coutinho [1617-1619] —–
• Ferrao de Albuquerque [1619-1622] ~ King, Filipe III [since 1621]
• D. Francisco da Gama [1622-1628] —–
• D. Frei Luis de Brito [1628-1629] —–
• Nonu Alvares Botelho [1629] —–
• D. Minguel de Noronha [1629-1635] —–
• Pedro da Silva [1635-1639] —–
• Antonio Teles de Menezes [1639-1640] —–
• Joao da Silva Telo de Menezes [1640-1645] ~ King, Joao IV
• D. Filipe Mascarenhas [1645-1651] —–
• D. Frei Francisco dos Martires [1651-1652] —–
• D. Vasco Mascarenhas [1652-1653] —–
• D. Bras de Castro [1653-1655] —–
• D. Rodrigo da Silveira [1655-1656] —–
• Manuel Mascarenhas Homem [1656] —–
• Manuel Mascarenhas Homem Francisco de Melo [1656-1661] ~ King, Afonso VI
• Luis de Mendonca Furtado [1661-1662] —–
• Antonio de Melo de Castro [1662-1666] —–
• Joao Nunes da Cunha [1666-1668] —–
• Antonio de Melo de Castro [1668-1671] —–
• Luis de Mendonca Furtado [1671-1677] —–
• D. Pedro de Almeida [1677-1678] —–
• D. Frei Antonio Brandao [1678-1681] —–
• Francisco de Tavora [1681-1686] ~ King Pedro II [since 1683]
• D. Rodrigo da Costa [1686-1690] —–
• D. Miguel de Almeida [1690-1691] —–
• D. Frel Agostinho de Anunciacao [1691-1692] —–
• D. Pedro Antonio de Noronha [1693-1698] —–
• Antonio Luis Goncalves da Camara Coutinho [1698-1701] —–
• D. Frei Agostinho de Anunciacao [1701-1702] —–
• Caetano de Melo de Castro [1702-1707] ~ King, Joao V [since 1706]
• D. Rodrigo da Casto [1707-1712] —–
• Vasco Fernandes Cesar de Menezes [1712-1717] —–
• D. Sebastiao de Andrade Pessanha [1717] —–
• D. Luis de Menezes [1717-1720] —–
• Francisco Jose de Sampaio e Castro [1720-1723] —–
• D. Cristovao de Melo [1723] —–
• D. Inacio de Santa Tereza [1723-1725] —–
• Joao de Saldanha da Gama [1725-1732] —–
• D. Inacio de Santa Tereza [1732] —–
• D. Pedro Mascarenhas [1732-1741] —–
• D. Luis de Menezes [1741-1742] —–
• D. Francisco de Vasconcelos [1742-1744] —–
• D. Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal [1744-1750] —–
• Francisco de Assiz de Tavora [1750-1754] ~ King, Jose I
• D. Luis de Mascarenhas [1754-1756] —–
• D. Antonio de Neiva Brum da Silveira [1756-1758] —–
• Manuel de Saldanha de Albuquerque [1758-1765] —–
• D. Antonio de Neiva Brum da Silveira [1765-1768] —–
• D. Joao Jose de Melo [1768-1774] —–
• Filip de Valadres Souto Maior [1774] —–
• D. Jose Pedro da Camara [1774-1779] ~ Queen, Maria [since 1777]
• D. Frederico Guilherine de Sousa [1779-1786] —–
• Francisco da Cunha e Menezes [1786-1794] —–
• Francisco Veiga Cabral [1794-1807] —–
• Bernardo Jose da Lorana [1807-1816] —–
• D. Diago de Sousa [1816-1821] ~ King, Joao VI
• Manuel Jose Gomes Loureiro [1821] —–
• D. Manuel da Camara [1821-1822] —–
• D. Manuel de Camara [1822-1825] —–
• D. Frei Manuel de S Galdino [1825-1826] ~ King, Pedro IV
• D. Manuel de Portugal e Castro [1826-1835] ~ Queen, Maria II
• Bernardo Peres da Silva [1835] —–
• Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva e Gama [1835-1837] —–
• Joao Casimiro Perira da Rocha [1835-1837] —–
• Simao Infanta de Lacerda [1837-1838] —–
• D. Antonio de Santa Rita de Carvalho [1838-1839] —–
• Jose Antonio Vieira da Fonseca [1839] —–
• Manuel Jose Mendes [1839-1840] —–
• Jose Antonio Vieira da Fonseca [1840] —–
• Jose Joaquim Lopes da Lima [1840-1842] —–
• Antonio Ramalho de Sa [1840-1842] —–
• Francisco Xavier Pereira da Silva [1842-1843] —–
• Joaquim Mourao Garcez Palha [1843-1844] —–
• Jose Ferreira Pastana [1844-1851] —–
• Jose Joaquim Januario Lapa [1851-1855] ~ King, Pedro V [since 1853]
• Frei de Santa Rita Botelho [1855] —–
• Antonio Cesar de Vasconcelos Correia [1855-1864] ~ King, Luis I [snce 1861]
• Jose Ferreira Pastana [1864-1870] —–
• Januario Correia de Almeida [1870-1871] —–
• Joaquim Jose Macedo e Couto [1871-1875] —–
• Joao Tavares de Almeida [1875-1877] —–
• D. Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos [1877] —–
• Antonio Sergio de Souza [1877-1878] —–
• D. Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos [1878] —–
• Caetano Alexandre de Almeid e Albuquerque [1878-1882] —–
• Carlos Eugenio Correia da Silva [1882-1885] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1886] —–
• Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral [1886] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1886] —–
• Augusto Cesar Cardosa de Carvalho [1886-1889] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1889] —–
• Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Menezes [1889-1891] ~ King, Carlos I
• Francisco Maria da Cunha [1891] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1892] —–
• Francisco Teixeira da Silva [1892-1893] —–
• Luis Fisher Berquo Pocas Falcao [1893] —–
• Rafael Jacomo Lopes de Andrade [1893-1894] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1894] —–
• Elesbao J. Betencourt Lapa [1894-1895] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1895] —–
• Rafael Jacomo Lopes de Andrade [1895-1896] —–
• D. Afonso Henrique [1896] —–
• Joao Antonio de Brissac das Neves Ferreira [1896-1897] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1897] —–
• Joaquim Jose Machado [1897-1900] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1900] —–
• Eduardo Agusto Rodrigues Galhardo [1900-1905] —–
• D. Antonio Sebastiao Valente [1905] —–
• Arnaldo de Novais Guedes Rebelo [1905-1907] —–
• Bernardo Nunes Garcia [1907] —–
• Jose Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa [1907-1910] ~ King, Manuel II [since 1908]
• Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa [1910-1917] ~ Pr. Teófilo Braga
• Francisco Manuel de Oliveira e Silva [1917] ~ Pr. Manuel de Arriaga [since 1915]
• Jose de Freitas Ribeira [1917] ~ Pr. Bernadino Machado [since 1915]
• Jaime Alberto De Castro Moraes [1919-1925] ~ Pr. Antonio Jose de Almeida
• Mariano Martins [1925-1926] ~ Pr. Bernadino Machado
• Pedro Francisco Massano De Amorim [1926-1929] ~ Pr. Oscar Carmona
• Joao Carlos Craveiro Lopes [1929-1936] —–
• Jose Ricardo Pereira Cabral [1938-1945] —–
• Jose Solvestre Ferreira Bossa [1946-1947] —–
• Fernando De Quintanilha E Mendonca Dias [1948-1952] ~ Pr. Craveiro Lopes (since 1951)
• Paulo Bernando Guedes [1952-1958] —–
• Manuel Antonio Vassalo E Silva [1958-1961] ~ Pr. Americo Tomas

Main historical events of Goa:
• 1000 B.C. – 96 families of Gauda Saraswat Brahmins settled in Goa.
• 300 B.C. – Mauryan Emperor Ashoka the Great annexed Goa into his empire.
• 400 A.D. – Kadambas of Banavasi conquered Goa.
• 600 A.D. – Chalukyas of Badami Occupied Goa.
• 1049 A.D. – Kadambas shift their capital from Chandrapura to Gopakapattana.
• 1312 A.D. – Malik Kafir of Delhi defeated Kadambas and set fire to Gopakapattana.
• 1327 A.D. – Mohammed-Bin-Tuglak destroyed Goa.
• 1334 A.D. – The end of the Kadamba Dynasty.
• 1350 A.D. – Founder of Muslim Bahamani Kingdom, Hasan Gangu occupied Goa.
• 1380 A.D. – Minister of Vijayanagara Empire, Vidyaranga Madhava defeated Hasan Gangu in order to conquer Goa.
• 1470 A.D. – Minister of Bahamani Kingdom, Mohammed Gawan won Goa.
• 1510 A.D. – Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal took control of City Ela.
• 1510 A.D. –Afonso abandoned the City Ela due to the siege of Sultan Adil Shah of Bijapur.
• 1510 A.D. – With the help of Hindu chieftain, Timmayya, Afonso again attacked City Ela and conquered her.
• 1515 A.D. – Portuguese Governor General Afonso de Albuquerque died in Goa.
• 1530 A.D. – Goa succeeded Cochin as the capital of Portuguese India.
• 1534 A.D. – Goa was declared as the centre of the Roman Church in the entire East.
• 1542 A.D. – St. Francis Xavier and the Jesuits arrived in Goa.
• 1543 A.D. – The Portuguese annexations of Salcette, Mormugao and Bardez with Ilhas formed the territory of Velhas Conquistas.
• 1556 A.D. – First printing press in Goa published the first book ‘Conclusionnes Philosophicas’.
• 1557 A.D. – An archbishopric was created in Goa.
• 1560 A.D. – An inquisition office was established in Goa.
• 1570 A.D. – Sultan of Bijapur made the last effort to defeat the Portuguese but failed.
• 1603 A.D. – The first blockade of Goa by the Dutch.
• 1622 A.D. – St. Francis Xavier was canonized by Pope Gregory XV.
• 1640 A.D. – The second blockade of Goa by the Dutch.
• 1653 A.D. – The revolt under the leadership of Fr. Mateus de Castro to overthrow the Portuguese rule was suppressed.
• 1683 A.D. – Maratha King Sambhaji attacked Goa.
• 1737 A.D. – Maratha King Sahu attacked Goa and conquered Bassein.
• 1741 A.D. – Marathas attacked again but were defeated by the Portuguese near Bardez.
• 1760 A.D. – Velha Goa lost its importance and Panjim held the seat of the government.
• 1763 A.D. – The Portuguese annexed Ponda, Quepem, Sanguem regions to Goa territory.
• 1764 A.D. – Canacona was added to Goa.
• 1787 A.D. – Unsuccessful ‘Pinto Revolt’ took place.
• 1788 A.D. – Pernem, Satari and Bicholim were added to Goa territory.
• 1797 A.D. – The beginning of the blockade of Goa by the British.
• 1812 A.D. – Inquisition was abolished.
• 1813 A.D. – The end of the blockade of Goa by the British.
• 1843 A.D. – Panjim officially became the capital of Goa.
• 1852 A.D. – The Ranes of Goa, under Dipali Rauji Rane Sardesai, launched the most successful revolt against the Portuguese.
• 1878 A.D. – The Mormugao seaport was opened to traffic.
• 1881 A.D. – Railway transportation system was established.
• 1895 A.D. – Unsuccessful revolt was launched by Dadaji Rauji Rane Sardesai.
• 1900 A.D. – The publication of Goa’s first daily paper, O Heraldo, began.
• 1912 A.D. – The final revolt of the Ranes.
• 1946 A.D. – Dr. Rammanohar Lohia conducted a Satyagraha in Margao, Goa.
• 1961 A.D. – Goa was liberated by the Indian Army under the mission named ‘Operation Vijay’.
• 1963 A.D. – The first assembly elections were held in Goa and Dayanand Bandodkar became the first chief minister of Goa.
• 1967 A.D. – The Goans voted in favor of not merging with the neighboring state Maharashtra.
• 1987 A.D. – Goa became the 25th state of Indian Union.
• 1992 A.D. – Konkani was declared as the official language of Goa State.

The churches built during the early Portuguese rule in Goa:
• Santa Catarina Cathedral: The largest church in Goa (1562 A.D. – 1619 A.D.).
• Church and Convent of Sao Francisco de Assis: This church was built in 1661 A.D.
• Chapel of Santa Catarina: This was built in 1552 A.D.
• Church and Convent of Sao Cajetan: The Theatins Italian Friars built this church in 1655-61 A.D.
• Basilica do Bom Jesus: This church was built in1594 A.D. – 1605 A.D. This is the richest church in Goa. In this church, the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier are kept.
• Church and Convent of Santa Monica: This church was built in 1606 A.D. – 1627 A.D.
• Church of Cruz dos Milagres: This was built in 1671 A.D.

Published in: on January 15, 2009 at 12:20 pm  Comments (1)  
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